Rice Science ›› 2023, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (4): 321-334.DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.02.002

• Research Papers • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Iron Toxicity Tolerance of Rice Genotypes in Relation to Growth, Yield and Physiochemical Characters

Sheikh Faruk Ahmed1, Hayat Ullah1, May Zun Aung1, Rujira Tisarum2, Suriyan Cha-Um2, Avishek Datta1()   

  1. 1Agricultural Systems and Engineering, Department of Food, Agriculture and Bioresources, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
    2National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand


Iron (Fe) toxicity, generated from excess reduced ferrous Fe (Fe2+) ion formation within the soil under submerged condition, is a potent environmental stress that limits lowland rice production. Total 11 diverse Thai rice genotypes, including a recognized tolerant genotype Azucena and a susceptible genotype IR64, were evaluated against 5 Fe2+ levels [0 (control), 150, 300, 600 and 900 mg/L] to screen the tested genotypes for their Fe-toxicity tolerance and to classify them as a sensitive/tolerant category. The evaluation was conducted by a germination study, followed by a polyhouse study on growth, yield and physiochemical performances. Results showed significant variations in Fe2+-tolerance across genotypes. Increasing Fe2+ level beyond 300 mg/L was detrimental for germination and growth of all the tested genotypes, although germination responses were negatively affected at Fe2+ ≥ 300 mg/L. Physiochemical responses in the form of leaf greenness, net photosynthetic rate, membrane stability index and Fe contents in leaf and root were the most representative of Fe2+-toxicity-mediated impairments on overall growth and yield. Difference in physiochemical responses was effectively correlated with the contrasting ability of the genotypes on lowering excess Fe2+ in tissues. Analysis of average tolerance and stress tolerance index unveiled that the genotypes RD85 and RD31 were the closest to the tolerant check Azucena and the sensitive check IR64, respectively. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means clustering revealed three major clusters, with cluster II (four genotypes) being Fe2+ tolerant and cluster I (four genotypes) being Fe2+ sensitive. Principal component (PC) analysis and genotype by trait-biplot analysis showed that the first two components explained 90.5% of the total variation, with PC1 accounting for 56.6% and PC2 for 33.9% of the total variation. The identified tolerant rice genotypes show potentials for cultivation in Fe2+-toxic lowlands for increased productivity. The findings contribute to the present understanding on Fe2+-toxicity response and provide a basis for future genotype selection or rice crop improvement programs against Fe2+-toxicity.

Key words: iron toxicity, Oryza sativa L., submerged soil, principal component analysis, stress tolerance index