28 July 2023, Volume 30 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Research Papers
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    Screening Rice Germplasm with Different Genetic Backgrounds for Cadmium Accumulation in Brown Rice in Cadmium-Polluted Soils
    Zhang Weixing, Guan Meiyan, Wang Jie, Wang Yulei, Zhang Weigui, Lu Xinzhe, Xu Ping, Chen Mingxue, Zhu Youwei
    2023, 30(4): 267-270.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.01.009
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    Hydrogen Sulfide Improves Rice Seed Germination by Regulating Aluminum Absorption, Internal Antioxidant Enzyme System and Osmotic Balance under Aluminum Toxicity Conditions
    Wei Qianqian, Kong Yali, Xiang Xingjia, Zhu Lianfeng, Liu Jia, Tian Wenhao, Jin Qianyu, Yu Yijun, Zhang Junhua, Zhu Chunquan
    2023, 30(4): 271-275.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.05.001
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    Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Water Requirement and Rice Productivity
    Konan Jean-Yves N’guessan, Botou Adahi, Arthur-Brice Konan-Waidhet, Satoh Masayoshi, Nogbou Emmanuel Assidjo
    2023, 30(4): 276-293.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.03.010
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    Assessing the impact of climate change (CC) on agricultural production systems is mainly done using crop models associated with climate model outputs. This review is one of the few, with the main objective of providing a recent compendium of CC impact studies on irrigation needs and rice yields for a better understanding and use of climate and crop models. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of climate impact studies on agricultural production systems, with a particular focus on uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of crop models. Although the new generation global climate models (GCMs) are more robust than previous ones, there is still a need to consider the effect of climate uncertainty on estimates when using them. Current GCMs cannot directly simulate the agro-climatic variables of interest for future irrigation assessment, hence the use of intelligent climate tools. Therefore, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses must be applied to crop models, especially for their calibration under different conditions. The impacts of CC on irrigation needs and rice yields vary across regions, seasons, varieties and crop models. Finally, integrated assessments, the use of remote sensing data, climate smart tools, CO2 enrichment experiments, consideration of changing crop management practices and multi-scale crop modeling, seem to be the approaches to be pursued for future climate impact assessments for agricultural systems.

    Germplasm Resources, Genes and Perspective for Aromatic Rice
    Prafulla Kumar Behera, Debabrata Panda
    2023, 30(4): 294-305.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.03.011
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    Aromatic rice is considered an important commodity in the global market because of its strong aroma and eating and cooking quality. Asian countries, such as India and Pakistan, are the leading traders of Basmati rice, whereas Thailand is the major supplier of Jasmine rice in the international market. The strong aroma of rice is associated with more than 300 volatile compounds, among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is the principal component. 2-AP is a phenotypic expression of spontaneous mutations in the recessive gene OsBadh2 or Badh2. The present review focuses on the origin, evolution and diversity of genetic resources of aromatic rice available worldwide. A brief discussion is presented on the genes responsible for quality traits along with details of their molecular genetics. This compilation and discussion will be useful for future breeding programs and the biofortification of quality traits of aromatic rice to ensure food security and nutritional need.

    Research Papers
    Morphophysiological Diversity and Haplotype Analysis of Saltol QTL Region in Diverse Rice Landraces for Salinity Tolerance
    B. M. Lokeshkumar, S. L. Krishnamurthy, Suman Rathor, Arvinder Singh Warriach, N. M. Vinaykumar, B. M. Dushyanthakumar, Parbodh Chander Sharma
    2023, 30(4): 306-320.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.02.001
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    Rice is sensitive to salinity stress at both the seedling and reproductive stages. The present study used 145 rice genotypes comprising of 100 landraces and 45 advanced breeding lines collected from different regions of India. These genotypes were evaluated in hydroponics under control [electrical conductivity (ECe) ~1.2 dS/m] and saline (ECe ~10.0 dS/m) environments along with susceptible (IR29) and tolerant (FL478) checks. The stress susceptibility index for eight morphophysiological traits was estimated. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all the parameters studied in control, stress and relative stress conditions. We identified 3 landraces (Kuttimanja, Tulasimog and IET-13713I) as tolerant and 14 lines as moderately tolerant to salt stress. Strong correlations in the morphological (root and shoot lengths) and physiological traits (shoot Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents, and Na+/K+ ratio) were observed under all the conditions. The hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into five clusters, among which cluster II comprised salt-tolerant lines. Haplotyping of Saltol region using 11 simple sequence repeat markers on 17 saline tolerant and moderately tolerant lines was conducted. Markers AP3206F, RM10793 and RM3412b, located close to SKC1 gene (11.23-12.55 Mb), displayed diverse allelic variations and they were not related to the FL478 type. In this region, tolerant lines like Kuttimanja, IET-13713I and Tulasimog have new alleles. As a result, these lines may be suitable candidates for novel genomic regions governing rice salinity tolerance. Salt-tolerance ability of Kuttimanja, Tulasimog and IET-13713I was validated in two years in three salinity stress environments. These promising lines can be used in breeding programs to broaden the genetic base of salinity tolerance in rice, and it may help to dissect key genomic regions responsible for salinity tolerance.

    Iron Toxicity Tolerance of Rice Genotypes in Relation to Growth, Yield and Physiochemical Characters
    Sheikh Faruk Ahmed, Hayat Ullah, May Zun Aung, Rujira Tisarum, Suriyan Cha-Um, Avishek Datta
    2023, 30(4): 321-334.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.02.002
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    Iron (Fe) toxicity, generated from excess reduced ferrous Fe (Fe2+) ion formation within the soil under submerged condition, is a potent environmental stress that limits lowland rice production. Total 11 diverse Thai rice genotypes, including a recognized tolerant genotype Azucena and a susceptible genotype IR64, were evaluated against 5 Fe2+ levels [0 (control), 150, 300, 600 and 900 mg/L] to screen the tested genotypes for their Fe-toxicity tolerance and to classify them as a sensitive/tolerant category. The evaluation was conducted by a germination study, followed by a polyhouse study on growth, yield and physiochemical performances. Results showed significant variations in Fe2+-tolerance across genotypes. Increasing Fe2+ level beyond 300 mg/L was detrimental for germination and growth of all the tested genotypes, although germination responses were negatively affected at Fe2+ ≥ 300 mg/L. Physiochemical responses in the form of leaf greenness, net photosynthetic rate, membrane stability index and Fe contents in leaf and root were the most representative of Fe2+-toxicity-mediated impairments on overall growth and yield. Difference in physiochemical responses was effectively correlated with the contrasting ability of the genotypes on lowering excess Fe2+ in tissues. Analysis of average tolerance and stress tolerance index unveiled that the genotypes RD85 and RD31 were the closest to the tolerant check Azucena and the sensitive check IR64, respectively. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means clustering revealed three major clusters, with cluster II (four genotypes) being Fe2+ tolerant and cluster I (four genotypes) being Fe2+ sensitive. Principal component (PC) analysis and genotype by trait-biplot analysis showed that the first two components explained 90.5% of the total variation, with PC1 accounting for 56.6% and PC2 for 33.9% of the total variation. The identified tolerant rice genotypes show potentials for cultivation in Fe2+-toxic lowlands for increased productivity. The findings contribute to the present understanding on Fe2+-toxicity response and provide a basis for future genotype selection or rice crop improvement programs against Fe2+-toxicity.

    Seed Priming Improves Enzymatic and Biochemical Performances of Rice During Seed Germination under Low and High Temperatures
    Salar Monajjem, Elias Soltani, Ebrahim Zainali, Masoud Esfahani, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Maryam Hosseini Chaleshtori, Atefeh Rezaei
    2023, 30(4): 335-347.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.03.012
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    As an abiotic stress, adverse germination temperatures cause serious disruptions in physiological and biochemical processes involved in seed germination. Using a factorial experiment, we examined the effects of different seed priming treatments on enzymatic and biochemical performances of rice seed germination under different temperatures. Each of the rice genotypes (Hashemi, Sadry-domsefid, IRON-70-7053-7 and NORIN-22) was primed with hydro-hardening, KCl, CaCl2 and ascorbic acid (AsA) and without a priming agent as a control at low (15 oC), optimum (25 oC) and high (35 oC) germination temperatures. The results showed that the enzymatic and biochemical performances of all the rice genotypes were affected by the seed priming agents, especially under the low germination temperature. At 15 oC, seed priming with AsA was found to be the best agent for the activities of amylase, α-amylase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the content of soluble sugars in the NORIN-22 genotype, and for protease activity and soluble protein content in the IRON-70-7053-7 genotype. SOD at the low germination temperature and CAT, POX and protease at the optimum and high germination temperatures were the most important enzymes in occurrence of germination potential in terms of seedling length, vigor index, normal seedling rate and germination rate. Under the priming agents, the highest changes in normal seedling rate were observed at the low and optimum germination temperatures by AsA priming in the Hashemi and NORIN-22 genotypes, and at the high germination temperature under KCl priming in the Hashemi genotype.

    Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Six Rice Cultivars in Italian Agricultural Ecosystem Managed with Alternate Wetting and Drying
    Veronica Volpe, Franco Magurno, Paola Bonfante, Stefano Ghignone, Erica Lumini
    2023, 30(4): 348-358.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2023.02.003
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    Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) system, in which water has been reduced by approximately 35% with an increased occurrence of beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and no negative impact on rice yield, was proposed to utilize water and nutrients more sustainable. In this study, we selected six rice cultivars (Centauro, Loto, Selenio, Vialone nano, JSendra and Puntal) grown under AWD conditions, and investigated their responsiveness to AM colonization and how they select diverse AM taxa. In order to investigate root-associated AM fungus communities, molecular cloning-Sanger sequencing on small subunit rDNA data were obtained from five out of the six rice cultivars and compared with Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data, which were previously obtained in Vialone nano. The results showed that all the cultivars were responsive to AM colonization with the development of AM symbiotic structures, even if with differences in the colonization and arbuscule abundance in the root systems. We identified 16 virtual taxa (VT) in the soil compartment and 7 VT in the root apparatus. We emphasized that the NGS analysis gives additional value to the results thanks to a more in-depth reading of the less represented AM fungus taxa.