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    Acclimation and Tolerance Strategies of Rice under Drought Stress
    Pandey Veena, Shukla Alok
    Rice Science    2015, 22 (4): 147-161.   DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(14)60289-4
    Abstract8611)   HTML1895)    PDF (6494KB)(11154)   

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop and requires larger amount of water throughout its life cycle as compared to other crops. Hence, water related stress cause severe threat to rice production. Drought is a major challenge limiting rice production. It affects rice at morphological (reduced germination, plant height, plant biomass, number of tillers, various root and leaf traits), physiological (reduced photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, relative water content, chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity, membrane stability, carbon isotope discrimination and abscisic acid content), biochemical (accumulation of osmoprotectant like proline, sugars, polyamines and antioxidants) and molecular (altered expression of genes which encode transcription factors and defence related proteins) levels and thereby affects its yield. To facilitate the selection or development of drought tolerant rice varieties, a thorough understanding of the various mechanisms that govern the yield of rice under water stress condition is a prerequisite. Thus, this review is focused mainly on recent information about the effects of drought on rice, rice responses as well as adaptation mechanisms to drought stress.

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    Rapid Determination of Silicon Content in Rice
    Dai Wei-min, Zhang Ke-qin, Duan Bin-wu, Sun Cheng-xiao, Zheng Kang-le, Cai Run, Zhuang Jie-yun
    RICE SCIENCE    2005, 12 (2): 145-147.  
    Abstract6587)      PDF (52KB)(9819)   
    A method for rapid determination of silicon content in rice was introduced. The reliability of this method was verified by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice cross Zhenshan 97B / Milyang 46. Two hundred and forty-nine RILs were transplanted in two replications. Simple correlation coefficients on the silicon content in the hull, flag leaf and stem in rice between duplicate samples of 498 rice materials were 0.97954, 0.97026 and 0.98848, respectively. Ten representative samples were selected for measurement using the high-temperature alkaline fusion method. Simple correlation coefficient between the silicon contents determined by the high-temperature alkaline fusion method and by the present method is 0.9993.
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    A Simplified Rice DNA Extraction Protocol for PCR Analysis
    CHEN Wen-yue , CUI Hai-rui , BAO Jin-song , ZHOU Xiang-sheng , SHU Qing-yao
    RICE SCIENCE    2006, 13 (1): 67-70.  
    Abstract8766)      PDF (140KB)(9490)   
    A simple protocol was established for DNA extraction using etiolated rice seedlings, whereby rice DNA was directly extracted in 0.5 mol/L NaOH solution in a single eppendorf tube. Results of comparative PCR analyses and electrophoresis showed that the DNA extracted using this method was as good and useful as that using standard CTAB method.
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    Characterization of Myanmar Paw San Hmwe Accessions Using Functional Genetic Markers
    Swar Oo Kyaw, Kongjaimun Alisa, Khanthong Srisawat, Yi Myint, Tin Myint Tin, Korinsak Siriporn, Lanceras Siangliw Jonaliza, Myo Myint Khin, Vanavichit Apichart, Malumpong Chanate, Toojinda Theerayut
    Rice Science    2015, 22 (2): 53-64.   DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(14)60285-7
    Abstract7913)   HTML0)    PDF (1159KB)(7712)   

    Paw San Hmwe (PSM) rice has been cultivated in many areas of Myanmar for a long time. Strong aroma, good taste and its elongation during cooking are the key characteristics of PSM rice. Thirty-one PSM accessions were genotypically characterized, and their physical grain and cooking quality traits were studied. We used specific gene markers associated with aroma, apparent amylose content (AAC) and alkali spreading value to determine the alleles carried by different PSM accessions. The results revealed that six PSM accessions (PSM10, PSM12, PSM13, PSM21, PSM22 and PSM30) had a 3-bp insertion in Os2AP gene. Gel consistency (GC) allele was predominant among the PSM accessions for gelatinization temperature (GT), however, the phenotype observed was between low and intermediate GT because of the combination of the GC allele with the presence of low GT allele at heterozygous state from the other loci of the SSIIa gene. Intermediate to high AAC was observed among the PSM accessions corresponding to the haplotype identified for the single nucleotide polymorphism G/T and the (CT)n repeat in the Wx gene. The characterization and grouping data of PSM accessions posted benefits to Myanmar seed banks, and our results will help in maintaining the integrity of PSM rice variety.

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    Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn Concentrations in Shoot and Grain Quality in Rice ( Oryza sativa)
    HAO Hu-lin, WEI You-zhang, YANG Xiao-e, FENG Ying, WU Chun-yong
    RICE SCIENCE    2007, 14 (4): 289-294.  
    Abstract6839)      PDF (100KB)(7645)   
    In a pot experiment, effects of N fertilizer application on the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in shoot of rice and the quality of brown rice were studied. In the treatments with N fertilizer application, the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in most parts of rice shoot increased compared with control (no N fertilizer application). This indicated that the transportation ability of microelements from root to shoot in rice was improved with N fertilizer application. Effect of N fertilizer on IR68144 was similar to that of on IR64, but the concentrations of the microelements in plant differed, suggesting that the characteristic expression of the two rice genotypes was not controlled by the amount of N fertilizer supplied. The concentrations of those microelements in brown rice increased at first and then decreased with increasing N fertilizer application, reaching the highest at 160 kg/ha, at which the Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in brown rice increased by 28.96%, 41.34%, 58.31% and 16.0% for IR64, and by 22.16%, 13.75%, 8.75% and 20.21% for IR68144 compared with control, respectively. Moreover, N fertilizer promoted the accumulation of protein, decreased the accumulation of amylose in grain, and enhanced gel consistency of brown rice. These results indicate that appropriate N fertilizer management could increase micronutrient contents in grain and improve nutrition quality of rice.
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    Genetic Diversity of Seed Storage Proteins in Different Ecotype Varieties of japonica Rice and Its Application
    JIN Wei-dong , LI Na , HONG De-lin
    RICE SCIENCE    2006, 13 (2): 85-92.  
    Abstract7235)      PDF (130KB)(7310)   
    One hundred and fifteen varieties (including cultivars and lines) with different ecotypes in japonica rice ( Oryza sativa L.) were analyzed for endosperm storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to estimate their genetic diversity for the purpose of genetic improving and variety identification. Nineteen types of profile were identified according to 1) presence/absence of 65 kDa bands, 2) staining intensity of 70, 60, 57, 37-39, 22-23, 13 and 10 kDa bands, 3) migration velocity of 35 kDa (α-4) and 4) band number at 57 kDa location. An unweighted-pair group average method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram based on the cluster analysis of genetic similarity of the protein bands showed a small genetic variation among the tested materials, with the similarity coefficients varying between 0.75 and 1.00. Three distinct groups were identified from the cluster analysis of the rice varieties studied at the similarity coefficient level of 0.894. The first group included eight varieties with high amylose content, the second group contained fifteen varieties with high protein content, and the third group had the remaining ninety-two varieties, which accounted for 80% of the total materials. Clear relationship between ecotypes distinguished by maturity and groups revealed by cluster analysis was not found in this study. Only the group of high amylose linked with medium-maturity medium japonica ecotype. The bands of 70 kDa and 65 kDa can be used as protein markers to identify F 1 seed purity of japonica hybrid rice Liuyanyou 422.
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    Relationship Between Canopy Temperature at Flowering Stage and Soil
    Water Content, Yield Components in Rice
    ZHANG Wen-zhong, HAN Ya-dong, DU Hong-juan
    RICE SCIENCE    2007, 14 (1): 67-70.  
    Abstract6308)      PDF (59KB)(7103)   
    The canopy temperature of rice at the flowering stage and the soil water content were investigated under different soil water treatments (the soil water contents were 24%, 55%, 90% and 175% at the flowering stage). The canopy temperature was lower than air temperature, and the soil water content significantly influenced the canopy temperature. The lower the soil water content, the higher the canopy temperature, the less the accumulative absolute value of canopy-air temperature difference. Moreover, the
    maximum difference between treatments and CK in the accumulative absolute value of canopy-air temperature difference appeared
    at 13:00 p.m. in a day, thus, it could be considered as a suitable measuring time. Under the lowest water content treatment, the peak flowering occurred in the first three days (about 70% of panicles flowered), resulting in shortened and lightened panicle of rice. As to the CK and the high water content treatments, the peak flowering appeared in the middle of flowering duration, with longer panicle length and higher panicle weight. Results indicated the lower the soil water content, the less the filled grain number and grain yield.
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    Rice Bran Oil Extraction by Screw Press Method: Optimum Operating Settings, Oil Extraction Level and Press Cake Appearance
    RICE SCIENCE    2012, 19 (1): 75-78.  
    Abstract8306)      PDF (421KB)(7016)   
    The appearance of rice bran ‘cake’ or discharge from a screw press corresponds to the level of oil produced in the extraction process. The relationships between operating settings, oil extraction level and cake appearance were studied. Cake characteristics reliably indicate the expected oil recovery extraction level. These conclusions applyed to both Chainat 1 rice bran and parboiled rice bran. Variables were the speed of the screw press (set at five levels from 8.5 to 19.8 r/min) and corresponding clearance distances between the screw and barrel (set between 1.0 and 1.9 cm). Results showed that the maximum levels of extraction were 4.17% for the rice bran and 8.20% for the parboiled rice bran. At the maximum extraction level, the apparatus continuously discharged cake that were hard, crispy, flaky, shiny and polished on one side but dull and coarse on the other.
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    Development of Hybrid Rice to Ensure Food Security
    YUAN Long-ping
    RICE SCIENCE    DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(13)60167-5
    Abstract7943)      PDF (624KB)(6992)   
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    Pathogenicity of Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on Brachypodium distachyon
    WANG Jiao-yu1, WANG Xiao-yan1, 2, LI Ling1, ZHANG Xin1, WANG Yan-li1, CHAI Rong-yao1, SUN Guo-chang1
    RICE SCIENCE    2012, 19 (3): 252-258.  
    Abstract7438)      PDF (573KB)(6858)   
    Inoculation methods for rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae to Brachypodium distachyon were developed to investigate the infection process and symptom development in comparison with those on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). M. oryzae could infect leaves, sheathes, stems and panicles of B. distachyon and cause blast disease. Spraying conidial suspension on either intact seedlings or leaf segments induced typical symptoms on B. distachyon. During the intact seedling inoculation, the symptom developed on B. distachyon leaves closely resembled that on rice; but the lesions on B. distachyon had better uniformity in shapes and sizes than those on rice or barley. In the leaf segments inoculation, only initial and low-developed lesions could be found on rice, while normal symptoms on B. distachyon and barley. Inoculated with low-virulent mutants of M. oryzae, B. distachyon produced low-level symptoms. The symptom level of each mutant on B. distachyon corresponded well to that on rice. In addition, typical infection processes presented on B. distachyon leaves: forming melanized appressoria, penetrating into host epidermis and then forming hyphae in epidermal cells. According to these results, B. distachyon can be used as a candidate for studying fungus-plant interactions and as a probable source of disease resistance.
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    Source-Sink and Grain-Filling Characteristics of Two-Line Hybrid Rice Yangliangyou 6
    ZHAO Bu-hong , WANG Peng , ZHANG Hong-xi , ZHU Qing-sen , YANG Jian-chang
    RICE SCIENCE    2006, 13 (1): 34-42.  
    Abstract6755)      PDF (107KB)(6631)   
    With two-line hybrid rice Yangliangyou 6 (YLY6) and Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ) and three-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as materials, the source, sink and flow characteristics in association with grain filling were investigated. The seed-setting rate, grain filling degree and grain yield of YLY6 and SY63 were significantly higher than those of LYPJ. The export and transformation percentages of the matter in culms and sheaths of YLY6 and SY63 were significantly higher than those of LYPJ. Activities of sucrose synthase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme in grains were higher for YLY6 and SY63 than for LYPJ, and were very significantly correlated with maximum grain filling rate, mean grain filling rate, grain filling degree and grain weight. The spikelet number, grain yield and total sink load per area of vascular bundle and phloem of YLY6 and SY63 were significantly smaller than those of LYPJ, and the greater the load, the lower seed-setting rate and the poorer grain filling. The transportation rate per area phloem of YLY6 was greater than that of LYPJ or SY63. The results suggest that YLY6 possesses strong source, great sink activity and efficient flow, which lay a physiological base for its high seed-setting rate and good grain filling.
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    Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major
    Insect Pests in Rice
    LU Zhong-xian, YU Xiao-ping, Kong-luen HEONG , HU Cui
    RICE SCIENCE    2007, 14 (1): 56-66.  
    Abstract8100)      PDF (71KB)(6558)   
    Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers ( Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera), leaffolder ( Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens) were closely related to the long-term excessive application
    of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.
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    Changes in Enzyme Activities Involved in Starch Synthesis and Hormone Concentrations in Superior and Inferior Spikelets and Their Association with Grain Filling of Super Rice
    FU Jing, XU Yun-ji, CHEN Lu, YUAN Li-min, WANG Zhi-qin, YANG Jian-chang
    RICE SCIENCE    DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(13)60116-X
    Abstract8780)      PDF (466KB)(6544)   

    The changes in activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion and concentrations of hormones in superior and inferior spikelets of super rice were investigated and their association with grain filling was analyzed. Four super rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu, IIyou 084, Huaidao 9 and Wujing 15, and two high-yielding and elite check cultivars, Shanyou 63 and Yangfujing 8, were used. The activities of sucrose synthase (SuSase), adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthase (StSase) and starch branching enzyme (SBE), and the concentrations of zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z + ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in superior and inferior spikelets were determined during the grain filling period and their relationships with grain filling rate were analyzed. Maximum grain filling rate, the time reaching the maximum grain-filling rate, mean grain filling rate and brown rice weight for superior spikelets showed a slight difference between the super and check rice cultivars, but were significantly lower in the super rice than in the check rice for inferior spikelets. Changes of enzyme activities and hormone concentrations in grains exhibited single peak curves during the grain filling period. The peak values and the mean activities of SuSase, AGPase, StSase and SBE were lower in inferior spikelets than in superior ones, as well as the peak values and the mean concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA. However, the peak value and the mean concentration of ABA were significantly higher in inferior spikelets than in superior ones and greater in the super rice than in the check rice. The grain filling rate was positively and significantly correlated with the activities of SuSase, AGPase and StSase and the concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA. The results suggested that the low activities of SuSase, AGPase and StSase and the low concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA might be important physiological reasons for the slow grain filling rate and light grain weight of inferior spikelets in super rice.

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    New Vegetation Index and Its Application in Estimating Leaf Area Index
    of Rice
    WANG Fu-min, HUANG Jing-feng, TANG Yan-lin, WANG Xiu-zhen
    RICE SCIENCE    2007, 14 (3): 195-203.  
    Abstract6827)      PDF (96KB)(6489)   
    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important characteristic of land surface vegetation system, and is also a key parameter
    for the models of global water balancing and carbon circulation. By using the reflectance values of Landsat-5 blue, green and
    red channels simulated from rice reflectance spectrum, the sensitivities of the bands to LAI were analyzed, and the response
    and capability to estimate LAI of various NDVIs (normalized difference vegetation indices), which were established by
    substituting the red band of general NDVI with all possible combinations of red, green and blue bands, were assessed. Finally,
    the conclusion was tested by rice data at different conditions. The sensitivities of red, green and blue bands to LAI were
    different under various conditions. When LAI was less than 3, red and blue bands were more sensitive to LAI. Though green
    band in the circumstances was less sensitive to LAI than red and blue bands, it was sensitive to LAI in a wider range. When
    the vegetation indices were constituted by all kinds of combinations of red, green and blue bands, the premise for making the
    sensitivity of these vegetation indices to LAI be meaningful was that the value of one of the combinations was greater than
    0.024, i.e. visible reflectance (VIS)>0.024. Otherwise, the vegetation indices would be saturated, resulting in lower estimation
    accuracy of LAI. Comparison on the capabilities of the vegetation indices derived from all kinds of combinations of red, green
    and blue bands to LAI estimation showed that GNDVI (Green NDVI) and GBNDVI (Green-Blue NDVI) had the best relations
    with LAI. The capabilities of GNDVI and GBNDVI to LAI estimation were tested under different circumstances, and the same
    result was acquired. It suggested that GNDVI and GBNDVI performed better to predict LAI than the conventional NDVI.
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    Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding
    CHEN Li-yun, XIAO Ying-hui, TANG Wen-bang, LEI Dong-yang
    RICE SCIENCE    2007, 14 (2): 71-77.  
    Abstract7234)      PDF (47KB)(6387)   
    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years. However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors’ experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production) were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8% over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super hybrid rice, two super rice parents, including a male parent 996 and a thermo(photo)-genic male sterile [T(P)GMS] line C815S, were bred. Furthermore, a super early hybrid rice combination, Luliangyou 996, which could be used as a double-season early rice variety in middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, was bred by using the super rice variety 996 as the male parent, and several hybrid rice combinations with higher yield than control variety in regional trials both of Hunan Province and state were bred with the T(P)GMS line C815S as the female parent.
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    Correlation of Plant Morphological and Grain Quality Traits with Mineral Element Contents in Yunnan Rice
    ZENG Ya-wen, SHEN Shi-quan, WANG Lu-xiang, LIU Jia-fu, PU Xiao-ying, DU Juan, QIU Min
    RICE SCIENCE    2005, 12 (2): 101-106.  
    Abstract6392)      PDF (39KB)(6368)   
    Correlations between four grain quality, 24 plant morphological traits and eight element contents of 653 accessions from Yunnan rice were analyzed. P, K, Ca and Mg contents of core collection were closely correlated to the most plant morphological and grain quality traits, and there were highly significant correlations ( P <0.01) among some traits including P content to number of stems and tillers, K content and amylose content, Ca content and plant height, Mg content and protein content. Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe contents of core collection were closely related to a few traits, such as Fe content and gel consistency (-0.1121**), Zn content and seed setting rate (-0.1411**), Cu content and number of grains per panicle (-0.1398**), Mn content and plant height (-0.2492**).
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    Development and Identification of Introgression Lines from Cross of Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta
    GUO Si-bin1, 2, WEI Yu1, LI Xiao-qiong1, LIU Kai-qiang1, HUANG Feng-kuan2, 3, CHEN Cai-hong1, 2, GAO Guo-qing1, 2
    RICE SCIENCE    DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(13)60111-0
    Abstract9691)      PDF (238KB)(6282)   

    Introgression line population is effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying favorable genes, discovering hidden genetic variation, evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research. In this study, an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs), which derived from an accession of Oryza minuta (accession No. 101133) with BBCC genome, as the donor, and an elite indica cultivar IR24 (O. sativa), as the recipient. Introgression segments from O. minuta were screened using 164 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL. Introgressed segments carried by 131 ILs covered the whole O. sativa genome. The average number of homozygous O. minuta segments per introgression line was about 9.99. The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 14.78 cM, and about 79.64% of these segments had sizes less than 20 cM. In the genome of each introgression line, the O. minuta chromosomal segments harbored chromosomal fragments of O. sativa ranging from 1.15% to 27.6%, with an overall average of 8.57%. At each locus, the ratio of substitution of O. minuta alleles had a range of 1.5%?25.2%, with an average of 8.3%. Based on the evaluation of the phenotype of these ILs, a wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were found. After inoculation, ILs 41, 11 and 7 showed high resistance to bacterial blight, brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper, respectively. These O. minuta-O. sativa ILs will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from O. minuta.

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    Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems
    RICE SCIENCE    DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(13)60113-4
    Abstract12131)      PDF (323KB)(6163)   

    The system of rice intensification (SRI) is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011). In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT) and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44) were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM); T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA); T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application) to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm) was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM) resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield and its attributes of Pusa 44 were significantly higher than those of Pusa Basmati 1. The seed quality parameters like germination rate and vigor index as well as N uptake and soil organic carbon content were higher in INM than those in chemical fertilizer alone. CT rice used higher amount of water than SRI, with water saving of 37.6% to 34.5% in SRI. Significantly higher water productivity was recorded in SRI as compared to CT rice.

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    Salt Tolerance in Rice: Focus on Mechanisms and Approaches
    Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy Inja, Kim Beom-Ki, Yoon In-Sun, Kim Kyung-Hwan, Kwon Taek-Ryoun
    Rice Science    2017, 24 (3): 123-144.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2016.09.00
    Abstract1523)   HTML1073741855)    PDF (1300KB)(6163)   

    Salt tolerance is an important constrain for rice, which is generally categorized as a typical glycophyte. Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting rice production worldwide, especially in the coastal areas. Susceptibility or tolerance of rice plants to high salinity is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also interacts with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Salt tolerant varieties can be produced by marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering by introducing salt-tolerance genes. In this review, we have updated on mechanisms and genes which can help in transferring of the salt tolerance into high-yielding rice varieties. We have focused on the need for integrating phenotyping, genomics, metabolic profiling and phenomics into transgenic and breeding approaches to develop high-yielding as well as salt tolerant rice varieties.

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    Effect of Establishment Methods and Weed Management Practices on Some Growth Attributes of Rice
    Mohammad Safdar BALOCH,*, Inayat Ullah AWAN, Gul HASSAN, Abdul Aziz KHAKWANI
    RICE SCIENCE    2006, 13 (2): 131-140.  
    Abstract7717)      PDF (66KB)(6093)   
    Studies were carried out for two years to evaluate the effect of methods of sowing and weed control practices on the productivity of transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice in Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement. The planting techniques viz. transplanting and direct seeding were maintained in main plots while weed control practices included the use of granular herbicide Sunstar 15WG (ethoxy sulfuron), Machete 60EC (butachlor), conventional hand weeding, and the weedy check (control) were assigned to the sub-plots. Data were recorded on weed parameters like weed density and dry weed biomass 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS); agronomic parameters including plant population, number of panicles and paddy yield and physiological parameters like leaf area index and net assimilation rate 45 and 90 DAS. The planting methods and weed management significantly influenced most of the parameters studied. The data revealed that the paddy yield and its components were significantly higher in the transplanted method than that in direct-seeded method, while the weed density and biomass were lower in the transplanted plots than the direct-seeded plots. Among weed management tools, the maximum paddy yield was obtained in hand weeding, closely followed by herbicide application Machete 60EC during both cropping seasons.
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