28 November 2021, Volume 28 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Research Paper
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    A Recessive Mutant of argonaute1b/gsnl4 Leads to Narrow Leaf, Small Grain Size and Low Seed Setting in Rice
    Mengqiu Song, Shuang Ruan, Youlin Peng, Zhongwei Wang, Noushin Jahan, Yu Zhang, Yongtao Cui, Haitao Hu, Hongzhen Jiang, Shilin Ding, Lan Shen, Zhenyu Gao, Xingming Hu, Qian Qian, Longbiao Guo
    2021, 28(6): 521-524.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.05.012
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (675KB) ( )  
    Mating Disruption of Striped Rice Stem Borer: Importance of Early Deployment of Dispensers and Impact on Airborne Pheromone Concentration
    Gavara Aitor, Vacas Sandra, Primo Jaime, Navarro-Llopis Vicente
    2021, 28(6): 525-528.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.09.001
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    Efficient Transformation of indica Rice Mediated by Agrobacterium and Generation of NcGDH Transgenic Genic Male-Sterile Rice with High Nitrogen Use Efficiency
    Cong Liu, Dongying Tang, Zhengkun Zhou, Hui Zeng, Xiaochun Hu, Yanning Tan, Peng Qin, Yong Deng, Jicai Wu, Yan Wang, Yuanzhu Yang, Dingyang Yuan, Xuanming Liu, Jianzhong Lin
    2021, 28(6): 529-531.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.09.002
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    Understanding Brown Planthopper Resistance in Rice: Genetics, Biochemical and Molecular Breeding Approaches
    Muduli Lakesh, Kumar Pradhan Sukanta, Mishra Abinash, Nath Bastia Debendra, Chandra Samal Kailash, Kumar Agrawal Pawan, Dash Manasi
    2021, 28(6): 532-546.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.05.013
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (540KB) ( )  

    Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is the most devastating pest of rice in Asia and causes significant yield loss annually. Around 37 BPH resistance genes have been identified so far in indica, African rice varieties along with wild germplasms such as Oryza officinalis, O. minuta, O. nivara, O. punctata, O. rufipogon and O. latifolia. Genes/QTLs involved in BPH resistance, including Bph1, bph2/BPH26, Bph3, Bph6, bph7, BPH9, Bph12, Bph14, Bph15, Bph17, BPH18, bph19, Bph20, Bph21(t), Bph27, Bph27(t), Bph28(t), BPH29, QBph3, QBph4, QBph4.2, Bph30, Bph32, Bph33, Bph35 and Bph36, have been fine-mapped by different researchers across the globe. The majority of genes/QTLs are located on rice chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, 11 and 12. Rice plants respond to BPH attack by releasing various endogenous metabolites like proteinase inhibitors, callose, secondary metabolites (terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoid, etc.) and volatile compounds. Besides that, hormonal signal pathways mediating (antagonistic/synergistic) resistance responses in rice have been well studied. Marker-assisted breeding and genome editing techniques can also be adopted for improving resistance to novel BPH biotypes.

    Research Paper
    Stress-Activated Protein Kinase OsSAPK7 Regulates Salt- Stress Tolerance by Modulating Diverse Stress-Defensive Responses in Rice
    Dan Zeng, Chunchao Wang, Junpin Xie, Fan Zhang, Jialing Lu, Xiaorong Shi, Yingyao Shi, Yongli Zhou
    2021, 28(6): 547-556.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.09.003
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (955KB) ( )  

    Soil salinity is an environmental threat limiting rice productivity. Identification of salinity tolerance genes and exploitation of their mechanisms in plants are vital for crop breeding. In this study, the function of stress-activated protein kinase 7 (OsSAPK7), a SnRK2 family member, was characterized in response to salt stress in rice. Compared with variety 9804, OsSAPK7-overexpression plants had a greater survival rate, increased chlorophyll and proline contents, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities at the seedling stage under salt-stress conditions, as well as decreased sodium potassium ratio (Na+/K+) and malondialdehyde contents. After salt stress, the OsSAPK7 knockout plants had lower survival rates, increased Na+/K+ ratios and malomdiadehyde contents, and decreased physiological parameters compared with 9804. These changes in transgenic lines suggested that OsSAPK7 increased the salt tolerance of rice by modulating ion homeostasis, redox reactions and photosynthesis. The results of RNA-Seq indicated that genes involved in redox-dependent signaling pathway, photosynthesis and zeatin synthesis pathways were significantly down-regulated in the OsSAPK7 knockout line compared with 9804 under salt-stress condition, which confirmed that OsSAPK7 positively regulated salt tolerance by modulating diverse stress-defensive responses in rice. These findings provided novel insights for the genetic improvement of rice and for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance.

    Cloning and Characterization of Protein Prenyltransferase Alpha Subunit in Rice
    Tao Wang, Lijuan Lou, Zeyu Li, Lianguang Shang, Quan Wang
    2021, 28(6): 557-566.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.05.014
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1755KB) ( )  

    Protein prenylation plays a crucial role in plant development and stress response. We report the function of prenyltransferase α-subunit in rice. Protein-protein interactions showed that the farnesyl- transferase (OsPFT)/geranylgeranyltransferase-I (OsPGGT I-α) protein interacted together with OsPFT-β and OsPGGT I-β. The α- and β-subunits of OsPFT formed a heterodimer for the transfer of a farnesyl group from farnesyl pyrophosphate to the CaaX-box-containing peptide N-dansyl-GCVLS. Furthermore, the tissue expression patterns of the OsPFT and OsPGGT I subunits were similar, and these subunits were localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Moreover, OsPFT/OsPGGT I-α-deletion homozygous rice mutants had a lethal phenotype, and the heterozygous mutants exhibited reduced pollen viability. These results indicated that prenylation plays an important role in rice development.

    Genome-Wide Identification of Zn2Cys6 Class Fungal-Specific Transcription Factors (ZnFTFs) and Functional Analysis of UvZnFTF1 in Ustilaginoidea virens
    Tianqiao Song, Xiong Zhang, You Zhang, Dong Liang, Jiaoling Yan, Junjie Yu, Mina Yu, Huijuan Cao, Mingli Yong, Xiayan Pan, Zhongqiang Qi, Yan Du, Rongsheng Zhang, Yongfeng Liu
    2021, 28(6): 567-578.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.03.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1336KB) ( )  

    Transcription factors (TFs) orchestrate the regulation of cellular gene expression and thereby determine cell functionality. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of TFs containing domains, which named as ZnFTFs, both in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi. We found that ZnFTFs were widely distributed in these fungal species, but there was more expansion of the ZnFTF class in Ascomycota than Basidiomycota. We identified 40 ZnFTFs in Ustilaginoidea virens, and demonstrated the involvement of UvZnFTF1 in vegetative growth, conidiation, pigment biosynthesis and pathogenicity. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that UvZnFTF1 may regulate different nutrient metabolism pathways, the production of secondary metabolites, and the expression of pathogen-host interaction genes and secreted protein- encoding genes. Analysis of the distribution of different fungal TFs in U. virens further demonstrated that UvZnFTFs make up a large TF family and may play essential biological roles in U. virens.

    Physiological and Proteomic Analyses Reveal Effects of Putrescine-Alleviated Aluminum Toxicity in Rice Roots
    Chunquan Zhu, Wenjun Hu, Xiaochuang Cao, Lianfeng Zhu, Yali Kong, Qianyu Jin, Guoxin Shen, Weipeng Wang, Hui Zhang, Junhua Zhang
    2021, 28(6): 579-593.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.03.002
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1952KB) ( )  

    The effects of putrescine on improving rice growth under aluminum (Al) toxicity conditions have been previously demonstrated, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, treatment with 50 μmol/L Al significantly decreased rice root growth and whole rice dry weight, inhibited Ca2+ uptake, decreased ATP synthesis, and increased Al, H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, whereas the application of putrescine mitigated these negative effects. Putrescine increased root growth and total dry weight of rice, reduced total Al content, decreased H2O2 and MDA contents by increasing antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) activities, increased Ca2+ uptake and energy production. Proteomic analyses using data-independent acquisition successfully identified 7 934 proteins, and 59 representative proteins exhibiting fold-change values higher than 1.5 were randomly selected. From the results of the proteomic and biochemical analyses, we found that putrescine significantly inhibited ethylene biosynthesis and phosphorus uptake in rice roots, increased pectin methylation, decreased pectin content and apoplastic Al deposition in rice roots. Putrescine also alleviated Al toxicity by repairing damaged DNA and increasing the proteins involved in maintaining plasma membrane integrity and normal cell proliferation. These findings improve our understanding of how putrescine affects the rice response to Al toxicity, which will facilitate further studies on environmental protection, crop safety, innovations in rice performance and real-world production.

    Root Morphology and Anatomy Affect Cadmium Translocation and Accumulation in Rice
    Anwen Xiao, Danting Chen, Wai Chin Li, Zhihong Ye
    2021, 28(6): 594-604.  DOI: 10.1016/j.rsci.2021.03.003
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (953KB) ( )  

    Paddy fields contaminated with cadmium (Cd) present decreased grain yield and produce Cd-contaminated grains. Screening for low-Cd-accumulating cultivars is a useful method to reduce the amount of Cd in the grains. The present study aimed to examine the roles of the root morphology and anatomy in Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants. Twenty-two rice cultivars were used in the first experiment, after which two cultivars [Zixiangnuo (ZXN) and Jinyou T36 (JYT36)] were selected and used in subsequent experiments under hydroponic conditions. The results showed that there were significant differences in Cd concentrations in the shoots (ranging from 4 to 100 mg/kg) and the Cd translocation rates (shoot/root) (from 7% to 102%) among the 22 cultivars, and the shoot Cd concentration was significantly correlated with the Cd translocation rate of the 22 cultivars under 0.1 mg/L Cd treatment. Compared with cultivar ZXN, JYT36 had greater root Cd uptake and accumulation but lower shoot Cd accumulation and Cd translocation rate. The number of root tips per surface area of cultivar ZXN was greater than that of JYT36, while the average root diameter was lower than that of JYT36. Compared with ZXN, JYT36 had stronger apoplastic barriers, and the Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in the root endodermis and exodermis were closer to the root apex in both the control and Cd treatments, especially for suberin lamellae in the root exodermis with Cd treatments, with a difference of 25 mm. The results also showed that, compared with ZXN, JYT36 had greater percentages of Cd bound in cell walls and intracellular Cd but lower Cd concentrations in the apoplastic fluid under the Cd treatment. The results suggested that Cd translocation, rather than root Cd uptake, is a key process that determines Cd accumulation in the rice shoots. The root morphological and anatomical characteristics evidently affect Cd accumulation in the shoots by inhibiting Cd translocation, especially via the apoplastic pathway. It was possible to pre-screen low-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars on the basis of their root morphology, anatomical characteristics and Cd translocation rate at the seedling stage.